Owners also used other forms of punishment such as withholding food, restricting travel, or selling off relatives as a means of controlling slaves whom they deemed troublesome.

Many enslaved women were owned by small farmers and worked as domestic servants. Slaveowners used a variety of punishments to discipline and dominate slaves. Compared to their white counterparts, slave families had more mother-headed households and were less patriarchal, and their typical lack of status and property undermined expressions of male authority. How many slaves did a typical white Southerner own? Many wills contained information about slaves. The Alabama Department of Archives and History has federal census enumerations of Alabama for the following years: Population. Slavery had been theoretically abolished by President Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation which proclaimed, in 1863, that only slaves located in territories that were in rebellion from the United States were free.

During the colonial era, the Indian slavery in Alabama soon became surpassed by industrial-scale plantation slavery. The U.S. Census taken six months before Alabama's secession showed slaves accounted for 48% of Alabama's population, and free Blacks 3%.

Many more slaves were brought to Alabama by slave traders, such as those operating in Mobile and Montgomery, where the state's largest slave auction houses were located.

Most antebellum slaves lived in so-called nuclear families (father, mother, and children). Only on rare occasions did slaves resist their bondage violently. Baine, Rodney M. 1995. During the colonial era, the Indian slavery in Alabama soon became surpassed by industrial-scale plantation slavery.[1][2].

The majority of slaves in Alabama, however, labored on modest farms, and the typical Alabama slaveholder owned fewer than five slaves. Slaves often worked alongside and sometimes slept under the same roof as their owner. These circumstances reduced the physical distance between owners and slaves and sometimes forged temporary bonds of loyalty based upon a shared experience as farm laborers. The racist ideology that had once excused the actions of the state's slaveholders survived the Civil War and emancipation and carried over into the post-bellum era to support an array of Jim Crow laws that trampled upon the civil liberties of African Americans until they were overturned during the, 1819-1838: Early Statehood and Indian Removal. How likely was it that a slave could find a spouse on a plantation of that size? Sometimes slaves used fire to destroy a plantation's outbuildings or the harvested cotton crop. Since the U.S. government was not in effective control of many of these territories until later in the war, many of these slaves proclaimed to be free by the Emancipation Proclamation were still held in servitude until those areas came back under Union control. 3. 2009. Although many owners ignored the statute, its passage reflected the increasing value that some legislators placed upon maintaining families among the enslaved. 1820 - index + census 1830 - index + census 1840 - index + census 1850 - index + census 1860 - index + census 1870 - index + census 1880 - soundex + census 1890 - Perry County (beats 8 & 11 only) - no index On what size farm or plantation did a typical slave live?

Statewide Alabama Slave Owners. Slaves occasionally physically attacked their owners or overseers.

Originally published in 1861. "Indian Slavery in Colonial Georgia. Slaves were most often beaten for working too slowly, stealing, running away, and disobeying owners or overseers. The largest numbers of slaves were held in bondage in counties located in either the Tennessee River Valley or the, Alabama gained statehood during a period when. 2nd Floor The plantation system was solidified throughout the first half of the 19th century, and Alabama was one of the first seven states to withdraw from the Union prior to the American Civil War. Like its neighbors, the Alabama Territory was fertile ground for the surging cotton crop, and soon became one of the major destinations for African-American slaves who were being shipped to the Southeastern United States. Alabama freedpeople welcomed emancipation but endured continuing hardships because of the prevailing and pervasive racial prejudices of the state's white inhabitants.

Nonetheless, the 1852 Alabama Slave Code made the voluntary manslaughter of a white person by a slave a capital offense. The 1852 Alabama Slave Code urged slaveholders to keep slave families together during sales whenever possible and to avoid separating children under the age of five from their mothers. The Thirteenth Amendment permanently abolished slavery in the United States in 1865. Reading these wills may provide the reader with a clue on their ancestors.

Why do you think the U.S. slave population grew while the slave populations elsewhere in the New World failed to naturally reproduce their numbers? New York, NY 10024 The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedules for Montgomery County, Alabama (NARA microfilm series M653, Roll 33) reportedly includes a total of 23,710 slaves, which ranks as the third highest total in the State and the seventh highest in the U.S. in 1860. How rapidly was the slave population growing? Headquarters:

49 W. 45th Street Wealthy planters generally had multiple domestic servants, whose duties ranged from cooking and cleaning to driving carriages, serving meals, and nursing children.

The slave population more than doubled during the 1820s and again during the 1830s. Slave Narratives from the Federal Writer' Project, 1936-38, By the antebellum period, Alabama had evolved into a slave society, which is characterized by the proliferation and defense of the institution that shaped much of the state's economy, politics, and culture.

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