[85], Interviewees said social rejection, family rejection and bullying contributed to depression, including suicidal ideation.

See also Aisling Walsh, “After a Surge in Hate Speech, and Police Raids, Guatemala’s LGBTIQ+ Community Fears the Worst is Yet to Come,” openDemocracy, August 6, 2019, https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/5050/after-a-surge-in-hate-speech-and-police-raids-guatemalas-lgbtiq-community-fears-the-worst-is-yet-to-come (accessed September 11, 2020).

Rigorously enforce Executive Decree 56 of 2010 that prohibits discrimination in the executive branch, and require all ministries and other government agencies to prohibit discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation and gender identity in hiring, contracting, and all other activities, and to take steps to counter systemic anti-LGBT discrimination. In response, the teacher beat Mynor, they said: “He beat me for having let the other kid do it.”[296] Ofelia G., a 21-year-old lesbian in Jalapa, described how she and other lesbian friends suffered sexual harassment from classmates: Geraldo R., a 23-year-old gay man from Jalapa, said classmates had bullied him in school for his “effeminate manner,” but teachers viewed him, not his classmates, as the problem, sending him to school psychologists to attempt to change him.[298]. Xavier H., a trans man, described becoming aware of his gender identity as a boy at age three. In 2017, MS-13 members asked her to store guns and drugs in her home. The term describes whether a person is attracted primarily to people of the same or other sex, or to both or others. [9] El Salvador and Guatemala outlaw discrimination on various grounds, but do not explicitly include sexual orientation or gender identity, and even where such laws are open-ended in terms of the categories that they protect, they are not applied. Raya E., a trans woman from Chimaltenango who identified as gay when she was a student, recollected her experience with a school psychologist at age 16 or 17. Their perceived difference rendered them vulnerable to bullying and abuse. [367], Sexual assault by police may also be opportunistic. [455] Stephanie Leutert, Savitri Arvey, Ellie Ezzell, and Marianne Richardson, “Metering Update: May 2020,” The University of Texas at Austin Strauss Center for international Security and Law and the Center for U.S./Mexican Studies at the UC San Diego School of Global Policy & Strategy, https://www.strausscenter.org/wp-content/uploads/MeteringUpdate_200528.pdf (accessed September 11, 2020). Córdova said she had been shot three times by men whom she believed to be members of the military police in Comayagüela, where military police have an active presence. [203] The bill, approved by Congress in an initial reading in August 2018, defines marriage as a union between a man and a woman. Her body was found the next morning. 2. See also Nelson Rauda Zablah and Gabriela Cáceres, “PDDH: Police Executed 116 People Between 2014 and 2018” (“PDDH: La Policía ejecutó a 116 personas entre 2014 y 2018”), El Faro, August 28, 2019, https://elfaro.net/es/201908/el_salvador/23592/PDDH-La-Polic%C3%ADa-ejecut%C3%B3-a-116-personas-entre-2014-y-2018.htm?fbclid=IwAR3MMMKRWyebfe1kq8_qR_23R-MKzynnJJmvtrb4jvpc4CqwUbn8MTtp4xI (accessed September 11, 2020). 184, December 7, 2018, http://www.oas.org/en/iachr/reports/pdfs/LGBTI-RecognitionRights2019.pdf (accessed September 11, 2020). She told Human Rights Watch, “I had nowhere to flee in my country.”[393]. Your intuition tells you it's time to leave that toxic relationship. The boy had come to the village to live with his grandparents because his parents did not accept him. 50-55. 32, 37, 65. She left school at age 10, having only completed third grade: Martin Y., an 18-year-old trans man, was also forced out of school because of transphobia: Martin Y. said his brother dropped out of school later that year after being bullied about having a trans brother.[294]. Yésica N. told Human Rights Watch: Yésica N. said that two days later, at the burial of the first two victims, Daniela and Yasuri, the third victim, Elizabeth, received a phone call and left to meet someone. [238] Human Rights Watch interview with Noelia A., Guatemala City, August 12, 2019. [179], Pricila P., a trans woman from San Salvador, said that finding employment was contingent on hiding her gender identity: “People like me are not accepted. A Human Rights Watch researcher conducted interviews in El Salvador (San Salvador, La Unión, and San Miguel) in May and July 2019; in Guatemala (Guatemala City, Huehuetenango, Jalapa, Guastatoya, and Quetzaltenango) in May and August 2019; and in Honduras in May and August 2019 (Tegucigalpa, Comayagüela, San Pedro Sula, and El Progreso), where she interviewed LGBT people who had been victims of human rights abuses, representatives of LGBT organizations and other human rights organizations, government officials, and United Nations officials. Mynor E., who is non-binary and uses male pronouns, said that one night in Puerto Barrios when he went out dressed in women’s clothing, together with a group of trans woman, police pepper-sprayed the group while they stood on a corner, ordering them to go away. Yolanda U., an activist with the Organization REDMMUTRANS (Multicultural Network of Trans Women), summed up: “We don’t have access to employment in Guatemala. Even before the US shut down the border altogether as part of its response to Covid-19, metering forced asylum seekers to wait in Mexican border cities for as many as six months before they even underwent the first step in the US of the asylum procedure, a credible fear interview. The third time, one descended from the vehicle. You'll mistakenly think you live in a hostile, random world that's out to get you unless you grab the wheel with both hands and steer your life toward what you want. 7-8. Rejecting asylum seekers at borders flies in the face of international refugee law, but US policy under the administration of President Donald J. Trump has—through a variety of mechanisms—aggressively restricted asylum seekers’ access to the United States.[423]. When Sandra C., a 24-year-old lesbian from El Salvador, was forced to flee her country due to threats and extortion from MS-13 in March 2018, she originally sought asylum in Mexico. 102 (1980), https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/STATUTE-94/pdf/STATUTE-94-Pg102.pdf (accessed September 15, 2020). Gabriela’s mother left home when she was one month old, and she was raised by her father.

[364] Republic of Honduras, Legislative Branch, Decree No. [288] Human Rights Watch interview with Carlitos B., Los Angeles, December 9, 2019. Children engaged in sex work should be provided all appropriate assistance, including assistance in their physical and psychological recovery, and social reintegration, and where necessary, protective measures should be taken. (The murder of her other best friend, Camila Díaz Córdova, for which police officers have been charged, is recounted above). [7] Adriana Beltrán, “Children and Families Fleeing Violence in Central America,” WOLA, February 1, 2017, https://www.wola.org/analysis/people-leaving-central-americas-northern-triangle (accessed September 10, 2020). The exclusion of such incidents should not be taken to suggest that these are not serious human rights violations that merit further investigation [509] In many countries, including in the Northern Triangle, governments have used the criminal law in ways that disproportionately impact particularly vulnerable or marginalized groups, including LGBT people, raising further concerns about its effectiveness and appropriateness as the primary tool to address discrimination. [36] For a Salvadoran or Honduran LGBT person who has fled the brutality of gangs and sometimes the authorities in their home country, being forcibly transferred to Guatemala, where many asylum seekers fear they will face similar forms of persecution as in their home countries, is a devastating blow. Spanish-speaking Human Rights Watch researchers conducted the interviews in Spanish. [192] Women’s Commission President Aníbal Rojas objected based on the claim that legal gender recognition could bring about marriage between two men. Poverty in turn places LGBT people at high risk of violence from gang members, from other members of the public, and from police and other members of the security forces. Under US law and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, to which the United States is party, the United States may not return asylum seekers to face threats to their lives or freedom without: (1) affording them an opportunity to apply for asylum or for protection against facing the threat of torture; and (2) conducting a full and fair examination of those claims. Iván R., 31, survived a murder attempt in 2014 in Guastatoya, El Progreso department.

246.a; Congress of the Republic of Guatemala, Decree 57-2002, http://scm.oas.org/pdfs/2002/cp10270.pdf (accessed September 10, 2020), art.

[301] Proyecto Convivimos, Violence in the Workplace Against Lesbians, Gays, and Trans People in Guatemala City (Violencia en espacios laborales hacia lesbianas, gais, y personas trans en la ciudad de Guatemala), October 2019, https://www.flacso.edu.gt/publicaciones/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Violencia-en-espacios-laborales-LGBTI.pdf (accessed September 11, 2020), pp. Anti-LGBT Persecution in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Interview: LGBT People Flee Violence in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, http://www.corteidh.or.cr/docs/opiniones/seriea_24_esp.pdf, https://www.elfaro.net/es/201601/el_salvador/17819/Las-muertes-invisibles-de-las-mujeres-y-los-hombres-trans.htm, https://www.oas.org/en/iachr/decisions/court/2019/13051FondoEn.pdf.

[499] Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Case of Azul Rojas Marín et al. [93] The case of Camila Díaz Córdova, in which three police officers have been accused of killing a trans woman in January 2019, discussed below, is illustrative of the various forms of violence and discrimination LGBT people experience. Martínez also filed a complaint at the Protection Mechanism for Human Rights Defenders, a government agency, but he said officials there simply suggested he should change his schedule and hours to avoid problems. [440] Human Rights Watch text message correspondence with immigration attorney Linda Corchado, February 5, 2020; Hamed Aleaziz, “Two Gay Immigrants Left Everything For Safety In The US. ASPIDH, COMCAVIS Trans, Entre Amigos, Estrellas del Golfo, Estudiantes LGBTI+ UES, HT El Salvador, and Paula Rosales.


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