During After defeating the Second Persian invasion of Greece in the year 480 BC, Athens led the coalition of Greek city-states that continued the Greco-Persian Wars with attacks on Persian territories in the Aegean and Ionia. The Great Peloponnesian War is largely famous because of the efforts of the historian Thucydides, the second great Greek historian. A brief treatment of the Peloponnesian War follows. Upon landing in Sicily, several cities immediately joined the Athenian cause. given the time. At the start of the war, the Athenians had prudently put aside some money and 100 ships that were to be used only as a last resort. This was a direct violation of the Thirty Years' Peace, which had (among other things) stipulated that the Delian League and the Peloponnesian League would respect each other's autonomy and internal affairs. Seizing its opportunity, the Spartan fleet sailed at once to the Dardanelles, the source of Athens's grain. The Athenians managed to survive for several reasons. In 411 BC this fleet engaged the Spartans at the Battle of Syme. The war featured two periods of combat separated by a six-year truce. In 413 B.C. However, during the battle of Aegospotami in 405 B.C., the Spartans destroyed the fleet of Athens. What then ensued was a period, referred to as the Pentecontaetia (the name given by Thucydides), in which Athens increasingly became in fact an empire,[8] carrying out an aggressive war against Persia and increasingly dominating other city-states. The Second Peloponnesian War was fought between the city-states of Sparta and Athens in the 5th century BC. He was succeeded by Nicias. During this time, Corinth attempted to build coalitions among the states B. All of this was due, in no small part, to Alcibiades. After the disastrous expedition in Sicily the confidence of Athens had been severely traumatized. Upon arriving, he raised up a force from several Sicilian cities, and went to the relief of Syracuse. This signified the first time in a century that Athens did not have These sanctions, known as the Megarian decree, were largely ignored by Thucydides, but some modern economic historians have noted that forbidding Megara to trade with the prosperous Athenian empire would have been disastrous for the Megarans, and have accordingly considered the decree to be a contributing factor in bringing about the war. What is important to understand here is that originally Sparta declared war on Athens as it wanted to free all Greeks from the stranglehold of Athens. Peloponnesian War, Athens signed a treaty with the Peloponnesian League. This After suffering a defeat at the hands of their colony of Corcyra, a sea power that was not allied to either Sparta or Athens, Corinth began to build an allied naval force. After boasting that he could put an end to the affair in the Assembly, the inexperienced Cleon won a great victory at the Battle of Sphacteria. The destruction of Athens's fleet in the Battle of Aegospotami effectively ended the war, and Athens surrendered in the following year. [9], Friction between Athens and the Peloponnesian states, including Sparta, began early in the Pentecontaetia; in the wake of the departure of the Persians from Greece, Sparta attempted to prevent the reconstruction of the walls of Athens (without the walls, Athens would have been defenseless against a land attack and subject to Spartan control), but was rebuffed. Even though this uprising was short-lived it provided Persia with a justification of helping Sparta. until about 424, the Athenians made additional progress both into the Athens was then victorious at the naval battle of Arginusae. The Athenians crushed the revolt, and peace was maintained. Under Gylippus, the Syracusans and their allies were able to decisively defeat the Athenians on land; and Gylippus encouraged the Syracusans to build a navy, which was able to defeat the Athenian fleet when they attempted to withdraw. More battles ensued and again, the Syracusans and their allies defeated the Athenians. Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases. In that year, [28][29][30], Cyrus the Younger would later obtain the support of the Spartans in return, after having asked them "to show themselves as good friend to him, as he had been to them during their war against Athens", when he led his own expedition to Susa in 401 BC in order to topple his brother, Artaxerxes II.[31]. Years passed and the war was still raging. As prominent historian J. In the battle, the allied coalition scored early successes, but failed to capitalize on them, which allowed the Spartan elite forces to defeat the forces opposite them. The fear of plague was so widespread that the Spartan invasion of Attica was abandoned, their troops being unwilling to risk contact with the diseased enemy.

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